Glossary


Basic oxygen furnace
A large, brick-lined cylindrical vessel, open at one end, in which liquid iron produced in the blast furnace is refined into liquid steel by oxygen blowing.
Blast furnace
A tall, brick-lined furnace for the production of liquid iron from iron ore, limestone and coke.
Brass
A metallic material based on copper and zinc, together sometimes with other metals. There are a very wide range of brasses with zinc contents up to 42 %. Brasses are used as castings and in a wide range of other forms (sheet, wire, tube, extrusions ...)
Continuous galvanizing
Hot dip process in which steel strip is moved continuously through a molten zinc bath. A zinc coating, which protects the steel from corrosion, forms on both sides of the strip.
EAF dust
Materials removed from the air pollution control systems of electric arc furnaces. They are a source of zinc for recycling.
Electric arc furnace
A brick-lined furnace in which steel scrap is melted in a furnace heated by electric arc.
Electro galvanizing
Process in which a zinc coating is continuously applied to steel strip by means of electrolysis. The coating can be applied either to both sides of the strip or to one side only.
Electrolytic process
A process for the production of zinc from primary zinc concentrates in which the concentrates are heated and then dissolved to form a liquid containing zinc sulphate. High purity zinc is recovered from the solution by means of electrolysis.
Filter dust
A light, powdery material removed from the air pollution control system of general galvanizing plants. It consists mostly of flux with a small amount of zinc oxide, and is recycled in the flux manufacturing industry.
Flux
A material used to prepare the steel surface before galvanizing, to ensure complete coverage of the zinc coating.
Galvanizing
Producing a coating on zinc or iron or steel by dipping in molten zinc. The term is also loosely used to describe other processes for producing zinc coatings on steel, particularly electrogalvanizing in which the coating is produced by electrolytic deposition.
Hot dip galvanizing
A process in which fabricated steel articles are individually dipped into a bath of molten zinc. A zinc coating, which protects the steel from corrosion, forms on all surfaces.
Imperial smelting process
A process for the production of zinc, mostly from primary zinc concentrates, in which the concentrates are heated, pelletised and reduced to zinc metal by coke in a blast furnace. The Imperial Smelting Furnace can also be used to treat a limited amount of secondary zinc materials.
New scrap
Zinc coated steel scrap arising from the zinc coating process, from reject products or off-cuts arising from the fabrication of zinc coated steel products. New scrap comes either from the sheet galvanizing process or from manufacturing processes such as those for car, appliances,?
Old scrap
Zinc coated steel scrap which comes from articles such as cars, washing machines, lamp post and highway barriers which have been used in the end-use market and which are either obsolete or broken.
Pressure die casting
A process for producing strong accurate parts in large quantities, by forcing molten metal under pressure into a steel die.
Primary electrolytic zinc refinery
A plant producing primary zinc by electrolysis of a solution of zinc sulphate which is produced by roasting zinc concentrate and then dissolving it in acid.
Primary zinc
Metallic zinc produced by a chemical or electrochemical reduction process mainly from zinc concentrates.
Primary zinc smelter
A plant producing primary zinc by reduction of essentially non-metallic zinc-bearing materials (either from ores or from secondary sources) with carbon (coal/coke). The ISF (Imperial Smelting Furnace) process is the most frequent form of smelter.
Scrap arisings
Any materials which may be used for the recycling of zinc. These may be : new (or process) scrap : zinc-bearing material which arises during the transformation of zinc and/or its incorpo-ration into a product. Examples include : off-cuts of zinc sheet ; machining and turning swarf ; castings and their feeding systems ; drosses from hot dip galvanizing.
Secondary zinc
Metallic zinc produced by remelting and, where necessary, chemical treatment of metallic zinc residues.
Secondary zinc alloy
A zinc alloy (generally zinc die casting alloy) produced by remelting, chemical treatment where necessary, and adjustment of composition, from scrap arisings of essentially the same alloy.
Slag
A by-product, which carries impurities away from the iron and steel making process.
Sludges
Materials removed from water circulating in some air and water pollution control systems.
Steel
Alloy based on iron containing carbon and small quantities of other elements.
Zinc
A metallic element, essential to human health, and the most important coating in the corrosion protection of steel.
Zinc alloy
A metallic material based on zinc, but with specified additions of other metals. In particular zinc die casting alloys contain 1-27 % aluminium, 0-7 % copper, 0.03 - 0.06 % magnesium.
Zinc ash
A material consisting of metallic compounds of Zn, Fe, Al and zinc oxide which is removed from the surface of the zinc bath in the continuous galvanizing industry. It is returned to the zinc recycling system.
Zinc ash
Oxidised zinc or zinc alloys, generally, containing large amounts of entrained metal. Ashes generally are formed on the surface of molten metals exposed to the air, for instance on hot dip galvanizing baths, zinc casting alloy melting and holding pots, etc.
Zinc blowings
Materials produced during galvanizing of tubes, when an automatic plant using a jet of steam or air is used to blow excess zinc from the surface of the tube. They consist mostly of metallic zinc and zinc oxide and are returned directly to the zinc recycling system.
Zinc bottom dross
A material consisting of an iron-zinc alloy which forms in general galvanizing baths as a result of the reaction between steel and zinc. It is removed from time to time and returned to the zinc recycling system.
Zinc chemicals
A variety of manufactured chemicals which contain the element zinc, used in detergents, pharmaceuticals and as animal feed supplements.
Zinc concentrates
Materials produced by zinc mines as the raw material for the primary zinc production industry. They usually contain about 55 per cent zinc.
Zinc die casting
Zinc alloy parts produced by the pressure die casting process
Zinc dross
A mixture of metallic materials contained in a matrix of zinc. In particular the zinc-iron and zinc-iron-aluminium compounds with a high proportion of entrained zinc which are formed in the hot dip galvanizing process. Top dross and bottom dross are so named depending on whether they float to the surface or sink to the bottom of the galavanizing bath.
Zinc dust
Metallic zinc in powder form.
Zinc electroplating
An electrochemical process for depositing zinc from zinc-containing solutions onto other materials.
Zinc oxide
The chemical ZnO, widely used in the tyre industry, in pharmaceuticals and as a precursor for zinc chemicals.
Zinc residues
Materials unavoidably produced during the galvanizing process. They consist mostly of metallic zinc and zinc oxide and are returned to the zinc recycling system.
Zinc sheet
Zinc or an alloy of zinc (generally with small amounts of copper and titanium) rolled into thin sheets suitable for forming into roofing and cladding and other applications.

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